In this publication we explain the long-term effect of salt stress in the proteins that act as bridges between cellular organelles in leaf tissues. Our results shows that, in response to salt stress, proteins that act as molecular bridges are activated and create communication pathways between two plant organelles, the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane,. This mechanism is a specialized cellular adaption that, in plants, enables the cellular adaptation to sustained stress conditions commonly found during their life cycle...
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Domesticated plants and animals often display dramatic responses to selection, but the origins of the genetic diversity underlying these responses remain poorly understood. Despite domestication and improvement bottlenecks, the cultivated sunflower remains highly variable genetically, possibly due to hybridization with wild relatives. To characterize genetic diversity in the sunflower and to quantify contributions from wild relatives, we sequenced 287 cultivated…
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Higher plants utilize nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat domain proteins (NLRs) as intracellular immune receptors to recognize pathogen-derived effectors and trigger a robust defense. The Activated Disease Resistance 1 (ADR1) family of coiled-coil NLRs (CNLs) have evolved as helper NLRs that function downstream of many TIR-type sensor NLRs (TNLs). Close homologs of ADR1s form the NRG1 family in Arabidopsis, the function of…
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The widespread use of accessible peripheral tissues for epigenetic analyses has prompted increasing interest in the study of tissue-specific DNA methylation (DNAm) variation in human populations. To date, characterizations of inter-individual DNAm variability and DNAm concordance across tissues have been largely performed in adult tissues and therefore are limited in their relevance to DNAm profiles from pediatric samples. Given that…
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Bottoms Up: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Brain Health

The gut microbiota affects many aspects of human health, and research, especially over the past decade, is demonstrating that the brain is no exception. This review summarizes existing human observational studies of the microbiota in brain health and neurological conditions at all ages, as well as animal studies that are advancing the field beyond correlation and into causality. Potential mechanisms…
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential unlimited source of insulin-producing β cells for diabetes treatment. A greater understanding of how β cells form during embryonic development will improve current hESC differentiation protocols. All pancreatic endocrine cells, including β cells, are derived from Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors. This study characterizes the single-cell transcriptomes of 6,905 mouse embryonic day (E) 15.5 and…
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Purpose High-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH) has a poor outcome after standard chemoimmunotherapy. We sought to understand the biologic underpinnings of HGBL-DH/TH with BCL2rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology through examination of gene expression. Patients and Methods We analyzed RNA sequencing data from 157 de novo germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCLs, including 25 with HGBL-DH/TH-BCL2, to define a gene…
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The results presented in this manuscript demonstrate the role for the IL13 receptor Rα2 in mediating repair of injured airway epithelium. The authors also demonstrated that the expression of IL13Rα2 is dramatically and significantly reduced in the airway epithelium of asthmatic individuals. This provides insight into the historical findings of epithelial damage and inflammation, in particular elevated IL13, in asthma. It may not be appropriate to block or absorb IL13 in asthma therapies, instead facilitating repair of the airway epithelium via IL13 becomes a new target for novel therapeutics.
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Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used to treat autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, but its mechanism of action is not completely understood. We asked whether IVIg can induce interleukin-10 (IL-10) and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human monocytes, and whether this response is reduced in monocytes from people with an Fcγ receptor IIA (FcγRIIA) gene variant, which is associated with increased risk…
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We have known for many years that these first-line responses, which are crucial to fight microbes, are turned off in early gestation. However, we did not know how. Studying monocytes from premature babies born at less than 33 weeks, we found that cells lack the capacity to rapidly increase glycolytic energy production required at the initiation of an inflammatory responses. These cells also lack protein synthesis capacity and are thus unable to produce key proteins involved in the immune response.
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