Solid tumors produce proteins that can induce the accumulation of bone marrow-derived cells in various tissues, and these cells can enhance metastatic tumor growth by several mechanisms. 4T1 murine mammary tumors are known to produce granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and increase the numbers of immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tissues such as the spleen and lungs of tumor-bearing mice.…
The authors employed expertise in DNA sequencing and analysis to characterize the genetics of tumour cells in patients, in the laboratory and in mice. Their findings demonstrated that while the Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) mouse model resembles the human disease and may provide valuable insights into GBM, variations in how the cancer cells behave in the human, mouse and laboratory settings do exist.
It is increasingly evident that non–protein-coding regions of the genome can give rise to transcripts that form functional layers of the cancer genome. One of most abundant classes in these regions is long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). They have gained increasing attention in prostate cancer (PCa) and paved the way for a greater understanding of these cryptic regulators in cancer. Objective…
The authors show that, despite the surprisingly complex origin of apicomplexans from algae, the alga-parasite transition actually occurred at least three times independently. Using single-cell genomics and transcriptomics from diverse uncultivated parasites, they found that two genera previously classified within the Apicomplexa, Piridium and Platyproteum, form separately branching lineages in phylogenomic analyses. Both retain cryptic plastids with genomic and metabolic features convergent with apicomplexans.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) disproportionately affects females. We determined whether physiological biomarkers (neuroplasticity, immune, stress, epigenetic) explain why females are more susceptible to AD than males using the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Methods Using the complete ADNI cohort, we analysed the effect of sex and APOE genotype (number of ε4 alleles) and sex and diagnosis (cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive…
The bacterial injectisome is a syringe-shaped macromolecular nanomachine utilized by many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The essential role in bacterial infection make it an attractive target for the development of novel antibiotics and vaccines. Using cryo-EM, the authors have captured the injectisome core in multiple distinct assembly stages. This novel structural information allows us to understand how this complex assembles and functions, and paves the way for structure-based design of novel therapeutics.
This paper implies that not all individuals living with HIV experience accelerated aging. It is those with a history of high levels of HIV replication, and hence greater immune activation, who show the greatest evidence of mitochondrial aging. In these individuals, the constant exposure to HIV and the immune system’s attempts to control the virus may lead to collateral cellular damage over time and drive accelerated aging.
Montbretin A (MbA) is a promising new drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, both major problems in our society. MbA is found in the underground organs of the flowering plant , but unfortunately the plant does not produce enough for drug development and application. The authors investigated how MbA is produced in the montbretia plant, and uncovered the complete sequence of the MbA biosynthetic pathway and the majority of the enzymes required for the process. Using that knowledge, they were successful in recreating parts of MbA biosynthesis in tobacco plants.
Several studies have now shown that previously reported function roles of H3K4 methylation are likely due to the co-activator activity of the complex that catalyzes H3K4 methylation. To address what role H3K4 methylation might play in pancreas development, we knocked out a component of this complex called the TrxG complex, that allows the complex to maintain its co-activator activity, but preventing it from catalyzing H3K4 methylation. They found that H3K4 methylation is essential for maintenance of the expression of terminal markers that are essential for acinar cell identity and function.
A big goal of genomics is to try to understand how genes are regulated, that is, how a cell controls when a gene is “on” or “off”. The authors showed that coexpression doesn’t have a lot to do with regulation, at least not at a fine granularity. Instead, it tells you about which genes are expressed in which cell types. They compared coexpression between single-cell data and brain tissue. They also discuss the possibility of correcting tissue-level data for the cell-type effects.