Nutrient-dependent body size plasticity differs between the sexes in most species, including mammals. Previous work in Drosophila showed that body size plasticity was higher in females, yet the mechanisms underlying increased female body size plasticity remain unclear. Here, we discover that a protein-rich diet augments body size in females and not males because of a female-biased increase in activity of the conserved…
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The Genome Atlas: Navigating a New Era of Reference Genomes

The reference genome serves two distinct purposes within the field of genomics. First, it provides a persistent structure against which findings can be reported, allowing for universal knowledge exchange between users. Second, it reduces the computational costs and time required to process genomic data by creating a scaffold that can be relied upon by analysis software. Here, we posit that…
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Molecular stratification can improve the management of advanced cancers, but requires relevant tumor samples. Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) is poised to benefit given a recent expansion of treatment options and its high genomic heterogeneity. We profile minimally-invasive plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples from 104 mUC patients, and compare to same-patient tumor tissue obtained during invasive surgery. Patient ctDNA abundance…
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Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) interacts with intestinal microbiota and promotes mucosal homeostasis. IgA-bacteria interactions are altered during inflammatory diseases, but how these interactions are shaped by bacterial, host, and environmental factors remains unclear. In this study, we utilized IgA-SEQ to profile IgA-bound fecal bacteria in 48 recurrent Clostridioides difficile patients before and after successful fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to gain further insight.…
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Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy diagnosed in men and the sixth highest contributor to cancer-related mortality worldwide (1). Advanced prostate cancer initially responds to androgen deprivation therapy before progression to an incurable state termed metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). mCRPC is typically treated with taxanes or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors, but the survival benefit is…
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The host environment in which infection occurs plays a crucial role in the interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antibiotic treatments. To make up for the lack of new antibiotics, alternative approaches, such as combination therapy and discovery of novel activity of known antibiotics in the host environment, are vital for treatment of pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. This research demonstrates how in vitro conditions…
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Hematopoietic clones with leukemogenic mutations arise in healthy people as they age, but progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare. Recent evidence suggests that the microenvironment may play an important role in modulating human AML population dynamics. To investigate this concept further, we examined the combined and separate effects of an oncogene (c-MYC) and exposure to interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage…
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The authors used 3D super-resolution microscopy to define for the first time the formation of a dense central endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubular matrix associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) viral replication factories. They further showed that a deep convolutional neural network could identify ZIKV infected cells based on central ER reorganization, representing the first application of deep learning to super-resolution microscopy images and to the ER.
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Clostridioides difficile is a gram positive, toxin-producing bacteria that is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection 1. During C. difficile infection (CDI) the bacterial toxins TcdA and TcdB are produced, which cause intestinal epithelial injury and inflammation and symptoms including diarrhoea and abdominal pain 2 . First line CDI treatment is typically vancomycin or metronidazole, antibiotics that kill vegetative forms…
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The authors developed a highly innovative platform of 3D, perfusable functional human cerebral blood vessels fabricated from individual cellular components. They demonstrated that they can now integrate functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-differentiated neurons to this platform, for the first time enabling electrophysiological experiments to be conducted in human neurons grown in a physiologically relevant 3D model of the neurovascular unit.
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